Urogenital Biomolecular and Physical Measures in Pre- and Post-Menopausal Women

Miranda A. Farage, Ken Wehmeyer, Gina Fadayel, Stacey Carpenter, Richard Cheng, Baiyang Wang, William J. Ledger


Background: A clinical study was conducted to evaluate biomolecules and physical measures in the urogenital skin of pre-menopausal and post-menopausal women.

Methods: A total of 45 female subjects (aged 21 - 70 years) were enrolled in the study and assigned to one of three groups: 15 pre-menopausal (pre-M), 15 post-menopausal receiving no form of hormone replacement therapy (post-M non-HRT), and 15 post-menopausal receiving HRT (post-M HRT). Self-assessed symptoms were recorded from each group (i.e. dryness, itch and difficulty with intercourse). Skin temperature and pH, and quantification of biomolecules (via tape strip samples) were obtained from the labia majora, labia minora and introitus. Vaginal pH was also collected.

Results: More post-menopausal subjects (HRT and non-HRT) reported genital symptoms of external and vaginal dryness, and difficulties with intercourse. External genital skin itch was reported more frequently in the post-M non-HRT group. Skin temperature was lower in both post-M groups indicating reduced blood perfusion. The pH was significantly higher for the post-M non-HRT group at the vagina, introitus and labia minora compared to the pre-M group. Histamine was significantly reduced in both post-M groups; however, histamine levels did not correlate with complaints of itching. The concentration of natural moisturizing factors (NMFs) did not differ consistently between groups. Concentrations of IL-1alpha tended to be lower in the pre-M group at all three body sites.

Conclusions: This is the first report of non-invasive measures of temperature, pH, biomolecules of vulvar tissue in post- and pre-menopausal women. Based on results of histamine analyses, we propose that reduced histamine levels in post-menopausal women are related to sexual and lubrication difficulties, and reduced blood perfusion.

J Clin Gynecol Obstet. 2015;4(3):237-250
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14740/jcgo347e


Post-menopausal; Histamine; Skin temperature; Skin pH; Histidine; NMF; IL-1α; IL-1ra; Urogenital biomarkers; Urogenital tissue; Cytokines

Full Text: HTML PDF

Browse  Journals  


Journal of Clinical Medicine Research

Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Journal of Clinical Gynecology and Obstetrics

World Journal of Oncology

Gastroenterology Research

Journal of Hematology

Journal of Medical Cases

Journal of Current Surgery

Clinical Infection and Immunity

Cardiology Research

World Journal of Nephrology and Urology

Cellular and Molecular Medicine Research

Journal of Neurology Research

International Journal of Clinical Pediatrics






Journal of Clinical Gynecology & Obstetrics, quarterly, ISSN 1927-1271 (print), 1927-128X (online), published by Elmer Press Inc.                     
The content of this site is intended for health care professionals.
This is an open-access journal, the authors retain the copyright, the journal is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International
License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Creative Commons Attribution license (Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International CC-BY-NC 4.0)

This journal follows the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommendations for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals,
the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines, and the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing.

website: www.jcgo.org   editorial contact: editor@jcgo.org
Address: 9225 Leslie Street, Suite 201, Richmond Hill, Ontario, L4B 3H6, Canada

© Elmer Press Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed in the published articles are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or opinions of the editors and Elmer Press Inc. This website is provided for medical research and informational purposes only and does not constitute any medical advice or professional services. The information provided in this journal should not be used for diagnosis and treatment, those seeking medical advice should always consult with a licensed physician.