Screening for Thyroid Disorder in First Trimester of Pregnancy: A Cross-Sectional Study

Sumnima Mainali, Sanita Kayastha, Sagar Devkota, Priyanka Yadav, Bishal Bharati, Sristi Upadhyay, Sailuja Maharjan, Sarbagya Manandhar, Laxman Timilsina


Background: Alteration in thyroid function is very common among females, in particular during pregnancy. The majority of them are clinically veiled, and with considerable differences in outcome of mother and fetus, even more serious maternal and fetal outcome if present during the first trimester. So, we conducted this study to explore the magnitude of thyroid problems during first trimester of pregnancy at a tertiary health care facility in Nepal and highlight the benefits of its early diagnosis.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted over a period of 1 year among 160 pregnant females in their first trimester, attending to the outpatient department of a tertiary care center. Blood samples were collected from all the patients for thyroid function test which included measurement of serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), and free tri-iodothyronine (fT3). Pregnant females with previously diagnosed thyroid disorders or currently under medications were excluded.

Results: Among the 160 patients included in the study, 25.83 years was the mean age. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 24.62 kg/m2 and most of the patients were overweight (40.625%). Of the patients 53.12% were primigravida and 46.87% were multigravida. Based on the thyroid function tests, 91.25% were found to be euthyroid, 3.125% were hyperthyroid and 5.625% were hypothyroid. The prevalence of subclinical hyperthyroidism and overt hyperthyroidism was found to be 60% and 40% respectively and that of subclinical hypothyroidism and overt hypothyroidism was 55.6% and 44.4% respectively. None of the patients had symptoms of thyroid disorder (neither hyperthyroidism nor hypothyroidism). The correlation between BMI and TSH among the pregnant females included in the study was statistically significant when tested by using Karl Pearson correlation coefficient (r = 0.164, P = 0.038).

Conclusions: Based on this study, around one in every 12 pregnant women had thyroid disorder. Early identification of thyroid disorders and prompt initiation of treatment is very essential for the health of mother and fetus due to the significant maternal or fetal morbidity and mortality associated with thyroid disorders. Thus, routine screening for thyroid disorder should be considered during pregnancy.

J Clin Gynecol Obstet. 2023;12(2):52-58


First trimester; Overt hyperthyroidism; Overt hypothyroidism; Subclinical hypothyroidism; Subclinical hyperthyroidism; Thyroid disorders

Full Text: HTML PDF

Browse  Journals  


Journal of Clinical Medicine Research

Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Journal of Clinical Gynecology and Obstetrics

World Journal of Oncology

Gastroenterology Research

Journal of Hematology

Journal of Medical Cases

Journal of Current Surgery

Clinical Infection and Immunity

Cardiology Research

World Journal of Nephrology and Urology

Cellular and Molecular Medicine Research

Journal of Neurology Research

International Journal of Clinical Pediatrics






Journal of Clinical Gynecology & Obstetrics, quarterly, ISSN 1927-1271 (print), 1927-128X (online), published by Elmer Press Inc.                     
The content of this site is intended for health care professionals.
This is an open-access journal, the authors retain the copyright, the journal is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International
License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Creative Commons Attribution license (Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International CC-BY-NC 4.0)

This journal follows the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommendations for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals,
the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines, and the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing.

website:   editorial contact:
Address: 9225 Leslie Street, Suite 201, Richmond Hill, Ontario, L4B 3H6, Canada

© Elmer Press Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed in the published articles are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or opinions of the editors and Elmer Press Inc. This website is provided for medical research and informational purposes only and does not constitute any medical advice or professional services. The information provided in this journal should not be used for diagnosis and treatment, those seeking medical advice should always consult with a licensed physician.